(Visited 71 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 New study of craters shows that moon’s surface gets churned every 81,000 years, not every million years.“I like it when theories are proven wrong, or exciting new things come up,” remarked Kathleen Mandt of Southwest Research Institute, quoted by New Scientist. That’s how to put a cheerful spin on an orders-of-magnitude correction. “The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter is starting to show there’s a lot we don’t know about the moon.” Data from LRO are showing a much higher influx of meteorites to the moon’s surface, implying that future astronauts stand a bigger-than-trivial chance of being in danger from flying rocks and dust. The data raise questions about the age of the lunar surface.The revised number of craters suggests the moon is pummeled by space rocks much more frequently than predicted, says Kathleen Mandt of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. It also suggests that the soil on the lunar surface is turning over so often that materials like water molecules could escape into space sooner than previously thought. That could have important implications for researchers trying to date rocks on the moon, or future initiatives hoping to mine resources out of the moon.Space.com says of the “Impact!” of the finding, “New Moon Craters Are Appearing Faster Than Thought.” Part of the new estimate comes from crater counts by LRO, including a whopping 222 new craters appearing just in the last 7 years, says Alexandra Witze in Nature. The other part comes from estimates of secondary craters formed from each new impact.The scientists also found broad zones around these new craters that they interpreted as the remains of jets of debris following impacts. They estimated this secondary cratering process is churning the top 0.8 inches (2 centimeters) of lunar dirt, or regolith, across the entire lunar surface more than 100 times faster than thought.Realization of widespread secondary cratering upset the crater-count dating method a decade ago (9/25/07), rendering the method essentially unreliable (5/22/12). Even if a future moon colonist avoids a direct hit, he or she could be at risk of debris from a distant impact if rocks and dust fly in all directions with no atmosphere to slow them down. Picture yourself working at a futuristic moon base stepping outside to watch the Earthrise:“For example, we found an 18-meter (59-foot) impact crater that formed on March 17, 2013, and it produced over 250 secondary impacts, some of which were at least 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) away,” Speyerer said. “Future lunar bases and surface assets will have to be designed to withstand up to 500 meter per second (1,120 mph) impacts of small particles.“PhysOrg says the meteoritic rain is so heavy, it gives the moon a facelift every 81,000 years, overturning the top two centimeters of lunar dust. Some impactors were big. The astronomers found 33% more craters than expected with diameters at least ten meters.None of the articles asks the obvious question: what does this mean over the assumed lifetime of the moon? If the moon really formed 4.5 billion years ago, as secular planetary scientists believe, that would be 5,555 facelifts. (It should be noted that the 81,000-year estimate uses models that assume the billions-of-years age of the moon. All they can really observe is the current impact rate. The new observations, however, imply a faster production rate than the favored model assumes.)Another consequence of the study affects all the planets and moons of the solar system. Does the impact rate need to be revised upward everywhere else? Are primary and secondary craters occurring much more frequently than expected at Mars and the moons of Saturn, or at Pluto? Meteor flux could vary at different radii from the sun. It’s also a factor of gravitational pull. But without a reconnaissance orbiter at each planet or moon, it’s hard to be sure. New craters have been observed at Mars – again, at a higher rate than expected (2/13/14).Earth, with its higher gravity, attracts meteors at an even higher rate, but our atmosphere causes most of them to burn up high in the sky. Meteors are commonly observed by skywatchers. The occasional meteor shower increases the rate when Earth passes through the dust stream of a comet. The rare meteorites (meteors that reach Earth’s surface) are prized by collectors. Some of them come from Mars and other planets, when glancing blows send rocks our way (3/25/08).The research paper in Nature by Speyerer et al. contains before-and-after photos of impact sites.The trend in crater-count dating has been up and down: up in the number of impact events and secondaries, down in the method’s credibility. It’s clear that these results were surprising. Despite all those thousands of craters, the moon doesn’t have to be billions of years old.This paper should stimulate creationists to revisit the moon dust problem. In the Apollo era, all the secular astronomers were astonished at the thinness of the lunar regolith. The Surveyor landers proved that the dust was not meters thick with fine dust as some had predicted. Apollo astronauts found the dust to be so shallow, they could scratch the bedrock with their boots. It seemed that fine dust had not been accumulating for billions of years. When subsequent estimates of dust influx were substantially reduced, many creationists abandoned the moon-dust argument for a young moon.Perhaps that was premature. This paper shows that impacts send up jets of dust that settle back under ballistic trajectories. If the top two centimeters can be completely “gardened” in just 81,000 years, it seems highly implausible to believe this has happened over 5,000 times. Some creation physicist ought to read the new paper and revisit the implications for age.
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest One might think that 4-H winds down during the winter months, when in fact the homework is in place for all that will follow when spring arrives. Many dairy judging opportunities take place around the state and all can help to lead up to Spring Dairy Expo when the state 4-H and FFA contest will take place on April 1 (no kidding). Spring Dairy Expo (springdairyexpo.com), March 30 – April 1, serves as the transition from one season to another and also allows dairy enthusiasts to gather for shows, sales, showmanship contests, and social gatherings.Here at the University, there also are many recognition programs that take place for students and alumni. On March 4, the CFAES Alumni Awards Luncheon will take place at the Fawcett Center and you will note some familiar dairy names within that group. On April 8, the Animal Sciences Department Recognition Banquet will be held at the 4-H Center on the OSU Columbus campus. Each year, the dairy judging program recognizes the anniversary teams of 50, 25, and 10 years, along with current members. There are a few members on the 50 year team for which I could use updates and addresses. If you know of Tom Criblez or Harold Meeusen, please help me to make sure they have a formal invitation.To finish out April, Dairy Palooza programs will be held at the Wayne County Fairgrounds on April 22 and then at the Auglaize County Fairgrounds on April 29. The website is updated and filled with information at ohiodairypalooza.com. Please encourage youth and adults alike with dairy interests to attend these workshops AND Quality Assurance training will be provided. We also have adult programs based around updates that will assist advisors in planning effective meetings. read more
The heart of growing your revenue is opportunity acquisition. More opportunities equals more sales (provided you win at the same rate and the average deal size is the same). But some sales organizations (and some salespeople) fail to acquire enough opportunities to grow.Failure to Acquire Opportunities from Existing ClientsSome sales organizations (and salespeople) don’t create enough opportunities from their existing client portfolio.These sales organizations do all of the work to acquire a client and then settle for a relatively low wallet share–even though they already have the relationships (or should), already have a contract, and already have some ideas as to how they might create more value for their clients. They stay focused on new client development, winning new clients only to half-win them, too.Never let it be said that I even hinted at the idea that you should slow down your efforts to hunt and to win new clients. But you also can’t easily grow if you don’t develop the clients you’ve already won, and that means working to acquire new opportunities from within those clients.Failure to Acquire Opportunities from New ClientsEven more sales organizations struggle to grow their revenue numbers because they believe that their existing clients can–and will–provide them with all of the opportunities they’ll ever need. But then they stall. Worse still, they lose a major client (or two), and all of sudden they find themselves in a tail spin.There is no way to win new clients and develop new opportunities fast enough to solve the problem of stalled or declining revenue once you start experiencing it. The time to have started hunting is long past by then. Even while you are developing existing clients, you have to keep your foot on the pedal.GrowthGrowing your revenue number is never really easy. But the recipe calls for acquiring new opportunities from within your existing clients while at the same time winning new clients. Focusing on only one at the expense of the other is the cause of stalled–or declining–revenue numbers.QuestionsDo you spend more time farming opportunities within your existing clients or hunting outside?Is your wallet share such that you can confidently say that you have all of the opportunities that you should have from within your client portfolio?How many new clients do you have to win to acquire enough opportunities to hit your revenue targets?Are you neglecting one source of new opportunities? Are you neglecting both? Essential Reading! Get my 3rd book: Eat Their Lunch “The first ever playbook for B2B salespeople on how to win clients and customers who are already being serviced by your competition.” Buy Now read more
Dear Editor,I would like to take this opportunity to thank the residents of Wilmington who voted in the recent town election. I am truly grateful for your expression of confidence and trust in my candidacy for re-election to the Board of Selectmen. A sincere thank you to my family and friends who worked so tirelessly on my behalf.I congratulate both Greg Bendel on his re-election and Jomarie O’Mahony on her election. I look forward to serving with them and the entire membership of the Board of Selectmen.You may be assured that every decision that I make will be based on what I believe is in the best interest of the Town. The residents of Wilmington have given me the privilege of working on their behalf and for that I am very grateful.Sincerely,Kevin CairaLike Wilmington Apple on Facebook. Follow Wilmington Apple on Twitter. Follow Wilmington Apple on Instagram. Subscribe to Wilmington Apple’s daily email newsletter HERE. Got a comment, question, photo, press release, or news tip? Email email@example.com.Share this:TwitterFacebookLike this:Like Loading… RelatedLETTER TO THE EDITOR: Former Selectwoman Judy O’Connell Endorses Kevin Caira For SelectmanIn “Letter To The Editor”LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Caira Thanks VotersIn “Letter To The Editor”LETTER TO THE EDITOR: If It Ain’t Broke, Don’t Fix It! Re-Elect Kevin Caira To The Board Of SelectmenIn “Letter To The Editor” read more