(Visited 71 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 New study of craters shows that moon’s surface gets churned every 81,000 years, not every million years.“I like it when theories are proven wrong, or exciting new things come up,” remarked Kathleen Mandt of Southwest Research Institute, quoted by New Scientist. That’s how to put a cheerful spin on an orders-of-magnitude correction. “The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter is starting to show there’s a lot we don’t know about the moon.” Data from LRO are showing a much higher influx of meteorites to the moon’s surface, implying that future astronauts stand a bigger-than-trivial chance of being in danger from flying rocks and dust. The data raise questions about the age of the lunar surface.The revised number of craters suggests the moon is pummeled by space rocks much more frequently than predicted, says Kathleen Mandt of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. It also suggests that the soil on the lunar surface is turning over so often that materials like water molecules could escape into space sooner than previously thought. That could have important implications for researchers trying to date rocks on the moon, or future initiatives hoping to mine resources out of the moon.Space.com says of the “Impact!” of the finding, “New Moon Craters Are Appearing Faster Than Thought.” Part of the new estimate comes from crater counts by LRO, including a whopping 222 new craters appearing just in the last 7 years, says Alexandra Witze in Nature. The other part comes from estimates of secondary craters formed from each new impact.The scientists also found broad zones around these new craters that they interpreted as the remains of jets of debris following impacts. They estimated this secondary cratering process is churning the top 0.8 inches (2 centimeters) of lunar dirt, or regolith, across the entire lunar surface more than 100 times faster than thought.Realization of widespread secondary cratering upset the crater-count dating method a decade ago (9/25/07), rendering the method essentially unreliable (5/22/12). Even if a future moon colonist avoids a direct hit, he or she could be at risk of debris from a distant impact if rocks and dust fly in all directions with no atmosphere to slow them down. Picture yourself working at a futuristic moon base stepping outside to watch the Earthrise:“For example, we found an 18-meter (59-foot) impact crater that formed on March 17, 2013, and it produced over 250 secondary impacts, some of which were at least 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) away,” Speyerer said. “Future lunar bases and surface assets will have to be designed to withstand up to 500 meter per second (1,120 mph) impacts of small particles.“PhysOrg says the meteoritic rain is so heavy, it gives the moon a facelift every 81,000 years, overturning the top two centimeters of lunar dust. Some impactors were big. The astronomers found 33% more craters than expected with diameters at least ten meters.None of the articles asks the obvious question: what does this mean over the assumed lifetime of the moon? If the moon really formed 4.5 billion years ago, as secular planetary scientists believe, that would be 5,555 facelifts. (It should be noted that the 81,000-year estimate uses models that assume the billions-of-years age of the moon. All they can really observe is the current impact rate. The new observations, however, imply a faster production rate than the favored model assumes.)Another consequence of the study affects all the planets and moons of the solar system. Does the impact rate need to be revised upward everywhere else? Are primary and secondary craters occurring much more frequently than expected at Mars and the moons of Saturn, or at Pluto? Meteor flux could vary at different radii from the sun. It’s also a factor of gravitational pull. But without a reconnaissance orbiter at each planet or moon, it’s hard to be sure. New craters have been observed at Mars – again, at a higher rate than expected (2/13/14).Earth, with its higher gravity, attracts meteors at an even higher rate, but our atmosphere causes most of them to burn up high in the sky. Meteors are commonly observed by skywatchers. The occasional meteor shower increases the rate when Earth passes through the dust stream of a comet. The rare meteorites (meteors that reach Earth’s surface) are prized by collectors. Some of them come from Mars and other planets, when glancing blows send rocks our way (3/25/08).The research paper in Nature by Speyerer et al. contains before-and-after photos of impact sites.The trend in crater-count dating has been up and down: up in the number of impact events and secondaries, down in the method’s credibility. It’s clear that these results were surprising. Despite all those thousands of craters, the moon doesn’t have to be billions of years old.This paper should stimulate creationists to revisit the moon dust problem. In the Apollo era, all the secular astronomers were astonished at the thinness of the lunar regolith. The Surveyor landers proved that the dust was not meters thick with fine dust as some had predicted. Apollo astronauts found the dust to be so shallow, they could scratch the bedrock with their boots. It seemed that fine dust had not been accumulating for billions of years. When subsequent estimates of dust influx were substantially reduced, many creationists abandoned the moon-dust argument for a young moon.Perhaps that was premature. This paper shows that impacts send up jets of dust that settle back under ballistic trajectories. If the top two centimeters can be completely “gardened” in just 81,000 years, it seems highly implausible to believe this has happened over 5,000 times. Some creation physicist ought to read the new paper and revisit the implications for age.
2 October 2009The 2010 Fine Art project, a visual celebration of the world’s most-watched sporting event, is assembling an international collection by some of the world’s leading contemporary artists to promote African visual arts and Africa as a powerful cultural destination.2010 Fine Art is a South African company that has acquired a global licence to produce and distribute fine art related to the 2010 Fifa World Cup – the first time in the 80-year history of the tournament that Fifa has granted such a licence.And according to general manager Rob Spaull, the project will be one of the largest international art collaborations in history.“We are assembling an international collection by some of the world’s leading contemporary artists that celebrates Africa and the Fifa World Cup,” Spaull said in a a statement last month.“With five artists from each nation that qualifies to play in South Africa, we will have 160 original works from every corner of the globe.“Add to that the exceptional pieces being assembled for the 2010 African Fine Art Collection, and the fact that we will be exhibiting not only here in South Africa but in all 32 countries during 2010, and you start to get a sense of how big an opportunity this is to promote African art and Africa as a destination of choice.”According to Spaull, 2010 Fine Art is busy adding artists to its international and African collections, and has begun to identify and appoint gallery partners in the 32 countries where it will be exhibiting.“The second phase of development will see the creation of a three-dimensional virtual art gallery in which all of the works from both collections will be able to be viewed online as part of a seamless virtual walkthrough,” Spaull said.The 2010 Fine Art website – www.2010fineart.com – allows visitors to see which countries have qualified for the World Cup and what art is available from each. As new teams qualify, their art will be loaded and updated.“Art is a language common to all,” says Spaull. “It opens windows of understanding between foreign cultures, and unites peoples who might otherwise share no common experiences. Sport, like art, creates bridges between cultures, and brings people together through shared excitement.“The eyes of the world are turning to South Africa as never before. We must make every use of these global opportunities to promote African visual arts and Africa.”SAinfo reporterWould you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See: Using SAinfo material read more
Polo, usually a sport of the privileged, is now being taken to underprivileged communities in the Free State. (Image: Poloafrica) With 60 ponies on hand, the Poloafrica Development Trust in the Free State is giving more people the opportunity to take part in equestrian sporting activities, like polo.A Laureus Sport for Good Foundation project, Poloafrica aims to make the sport more inclusive and change the perception that it is only for the elite.Based in Uitgedacht Farm on the foothills of the Maluti Mountains, Poloafrica uses the love of riding, polo and ponies as a way to encourage boys and girls from disadvantaged backgrounds to work hard vocationally, at school, and at the life skills lessons provided on the farm.The ponies are used for young people aged between six and 21.Poloafrica founder, Catherine Cairns said the majority of the development polo players in the country belong to the programme and they’re doing well.“Poloafrica teams have numerous wins to their credit in tournaments in Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal and the Free State.”Skills developmentAccording to Poloafrica’s website, it also provides opportunities for talented underprivileged adults to flourish as equestrian professionals – whether in playing the game, caring for the animals, schooling ponies or coaching others.“Recently the scope of equestrian activities offered by the programme has broadened, with the introduction of dressage and show jumping,” said Cairns.“Poloafrica serves eight villages in the surrounding farming community, with a few children visiting during the holidays from across the Lesotho border.”The children in the programme learn a variety of life skills such as art, singing, needlework, bee-keeping, carpentry, welding, acrobatics, self-defence, computer skills and spoken self-expression.They also receive extra tuition in maths and English, two subjects which present a challenge to rural children in South Africa today.The programme also places importance on having empathy for the animals, good attitude and teamwork. To be a Poloafrica scholar, children must be registered at school.Adults in the community also benefit from the employment opportunities offered by the programme.Breaking the barrierPoloafrica is in line with the government’s Transformation Charter for South African Sport.The charter looks to unleash the sporting potential of black youth by encouraging broader community involvement, the creation of development programmes at grassroots levels and the delivering of facilities to disadvantaged communities.“Poloafrica’s strategy delivers against these exact objectives,” said Cairns. “The programme provides beautiful, first class riding and polo facilities in an under-served area, with extensive community involvement. With little help it has already developed a robust pipeline of promising young riders and polo players from one of the most disadvantaged parts of the country.”Closing the gender dividePoloafrica also tries to break down the gender divide.According to the organisation, a cultural shift in the mindset is necessary for the girls on the programme to develop the same sense of purpose in life and confidence in sport as the boys.The trust uses riding and other sports and life skills to encourage girls to become more independent. “In recent holidays the FLY (First Love Yourself) project was designed especially for the older girls to foster self-worth,” said Cairns.“Girls on the programme are encouraged to learn practical skills that traditionally are only done by men, such as welding and carpentry. Equally, the boys on the programme are encouraged to learn skills such as needlework and cooking.” read more
Share Facebook Twitter Google + LinkedIn Pinterest Bearish.That one word wraps up today’s numbers for corn, soybeans, and wheat. Not only were the yield estimates for both corn and soybeans higher than July, they are much higher. The trade had expected production, yield, and ending stocks to be declining for corn and soybeans. They did not. USDA estimated the corn yield at 168.8 bushels per acre, up 2 bushels from July. The trade had expected ending stocks to drop about 175 million bushels. Instead, they rose 113 million bushels to 1.713 billion bushels. Corn production was estimated to be 13.686 billion bushels, up from last month’s 13.530 billion bushels. Soybean production was pegged at 3.916 billion bushels, compared to last months 3.885 billion bushels, and up 31 million bushels. The trade has been talking for weeks about soybean ending stocks moving lower. They came in at 470 million bushels, up from last months 425 million bushels. Traders had expected ending stocks to drop to 301 million bushels.Prior to the USDA report at noon corn and wheat were up 5 cents with soybeans down 7 cents. Shortly after the report corn was down 21 cents, soybeans down 53 cents, and wheat down 14 cents.Ahead of today’s supply and demand report the market has seen lots of price volatility. Monday brought double digit gains across the board for grains on supply concerns. Tuesday most of those gains were erased with demand concerns, largely for US corn and soybeans exports. Todays USDA report will be the first surveyed report as reporters comb thousands of fields across the country in efforts to best determine corn and soybean yields. For corn they will be looking at stalk counts. Numerous reports since planting took place comment that producers were pushing the envelope pretty hard in orders to get seed counts per acre moving higher. Later in September USDA will be looking at ear weights as part of the surveys they conduct. With soybeans the reporters are looking at pod counts.This year has been an especially difficult year to get an accurate number of acres for corn and soybeans with all of the flooding problems that took place. It was not just a large area for one state that rains played a role. Instead, it was many areas in many states. Missouri in particular was hardest hit with soybean plantings held up for weeks. Going back to late June there were nearly five million acres yet to be planted to soybeans. Again most of that was in Missouri. Yet indications suggest it will be just Indiana where soybean acres will again be surveyed. Shortly after the June 30 acres and stocks report many had thought that the soybean acres would be surveyed in three states, Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana. Closer to home in Ohio, northwest Ohio had many counties where rains played a role in corn and soybean acres not getting planted. It is no wonder that some have said we may not see a really good acres number until the final report for 2015 production comes out in January 2016.Prior to the report many had thought that the numbers would be bullish for soybeans and neutral for corn. Traders were looking for U.S. corn production to be 13.327 billion bushels, down 200 million bushels from the July report. In addition, they estimated the U.S. corn yield to be 164.5 bushels per acres, down from 166.8 bushels in July. Traders had estimate soybean production would decline with at lower yield of 44.7 bushels per acres compared to the July estimate of 46 bushels per acre.The take home from today, the report was bearish without a doubt. Traders and producers were expecting lower yields and lower ending stocks. That did not happen and the markets will close lower today. It may not be immediately seen but there is one more take home for the day, another short phrase to remember. Uncertainty and price volatility. With so many not seeing the high yields that USDA published, many will now be saying, “Show me, show me the yields are there.”It is going to be a most interesting time for the grain markets in the next two months. read more
I did an impromptu webinar with Jeb Blount on the fear of rejection. It morphed into a conversation about all of the different fears that we have as salespeople. Jeb asked me how you build an immunity to those fears. Here’s an action plan:Find Someone Who Has Overcome Your FearIt’s easy for other people to suggest that you should ignore your fear. But it is unlikely that those same individuals ignore their fears. If you are afraid, it is likely that there is a real danger attached to that fear.Maybe you fear making cold calls. The first thing you might do to overcome that fear is to sit with someone who has no fear of making cold calls while they make calls. By sitting with someone who no longer has a fear of making those calls, you will have a chance to witness for yourself that nothing bad happens. The same applies to the fear of asking for referrals, asking for commitments, or revealing that you have a higher price early in the sales process.By spending time with someone who no longer has the fear that you have, you will discover how they think about what they’re doing, how they approach it, and how they succeed in taking action without fear.Objectify Your FearOne way to begin to remove the fear from your body and your mind is to write down what you are afraid of. Give the fear a name.Write down what you believe to be the danger that gives rise to your fear. Write down all the things that may happen when you take the action of which you are afraid. Follow those outcomes to their logical conclusion and write down the worst possible things that can happen. Score them on how likely they are to occur.By writing down your fear, you get it out of your body, from your mind onto paper or your computer screen where you can objectify the fear. Now that it’s an idea written on paper, it loses some of its power over you. It is an object, not a part of you. You may also recognize that the danger isn’t as great as you believed.Fear The Greater DangerA lot of the fears we have are connected to the wrong danger.We fear that by making the call we will be rejected, and that will say something about our value. The real danger is in that not making the call you don’t produce the results you are capable of for you, for your company, or for your prospective client.We fear to ask a contact that’s engaged with us how serious they are about the initiative we’re discussing and whether or not they’re going to be able to get the support and financial backing necessary. There is a danger of offending your contact, but the greater risk is in not asking and later finding out that you’ve both spent months on an initiative that’s not going to happen.We fear discussing our higher price early in the sales process, believing it will frighten our prospective client away. But the greater danger is in not discussing it and going through the process without having justified the delta between our price and our competitors along the way.Fear is a powerful motivator. It can motivate you to avoid taking an action that may harm you. It can also motivate you to act, when not taking that action will harm you. You have to determine what is the greater danger. Essential Reading! Get my 3rd book: Eat Their Lunch “The first ever playbook for B2B salespeople on how to win clients and customers who are already being serviced by your competition.” Buy Now read more
The first Group 2 game in the Super Eights promises to be a fight between two strong bowling line-ups belonging to Pakistan and South Africa.Neither team has played at the R Premadasa Stadium during the World Twenty20, with Pakistan coming in from the batting-friendly Pallekele and the Proteas from Hambantota, which all-rounder Albie Morkel called ‘just like home’.But on the turning tracks here, every opponent will need to be wary of Pakistan’s trump card, Saeed Ajmal, who has become virtually unplayable in any format and conditions. South Africa skipper AB de Villiers said “no” when asked whether any of his batsmen were able to read Ajmal. “But we have a few areas where we’d like to attack him,” he said.”They are a very good team. They have been in the semi-finals of all tournaments and have also won once. But our focus is more on what we can do well,” de Villiers said. The Proteas have a terrific batting line-up led by the runmachine Hashim Amla and young gun Richard Levi at the top, followed by the legendary Jacques Kallis, de Villiers himself, JP Duminy and Francois du Plessis.Dale Steyn and Morne Morkel make for a scary new-ball pair, and can be ably backed up by allrounders Kallis and Albie, and two quality limited-overs spinners in Johan Botha and Robin Peterson.Pakistan, on the other hand, have a misfiring fast bowling line-up, but do possess a lot of in-form batsmen like skipper Mohammad Hafeez, Imran Nazir, Nasir Jamshed and the Akmal brothers – Kamran and Umar. In the end, the match will probably come down to how the South Africans negotiate the Pakistani spinners.advertisementPakistan vs South Africa, Live from Colombo, on STAR Cricket from 3:30 pm read more