(Visited 71 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 New study of craters shows that moon’s surface gets churned every 81,000 years, not every million years.“I like it when theories are proven wrong, or exciting new things come up,” remarked Kathleen Mandt of Southwest Research Institute, quoted by New Scientist. That’s how to put a cheerful spin on an orders-of-magnitude correction. “The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter is starting to show there’s a lot we don’t know about the moon.” Data from LRO are showing a much higher influx of meteorites to the moon’s surface, implying that future astronauts stand a bigger-than-trivial chance of being in danger from flying rocks and dust. The data raise questions about the age of the lunar surface.The revised number of craters suggests the moon is pummeled by space rocks much more frequently than predicted, says Kathleen Mandt of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. It also suggests that the soil on the lunar surface is turning over so often that materials like water molecules could escape into space sooner than previously thought. That could have important implications for researchers trying to date rocks on the moon, or future initiatives hoping to mine resources out of the moon.Space.com says of the “Impact!” of the finding, “New Moon Craters Are Appearing Faster Than Thought.” Part of the new estimate comes from crater counts by LRO, including a whopping 222 new craters appearing just in the last 7 years, says Alexandra Witze in Nature. The other part comes from estimates of secondary craters formed from each new impact.The scientists also found broad zones around these new craters that they interpreted as the remains of jets of debris following impacts. They estimated this secondary cratering process is churning the top 0.8 inches (2 centimeters) of lunar dirt, or regolith, across the entire lunar surface more than 100 times faster than thought.Realization of widespread secondary cratering upset the crater-count dating method a decade ago (9/25/07), rendering the method essentially unreliable (5/22/12). Even if a future moon colonist avoids a direct hit, he or she could be at risk of debris from a distant impact if rocks and dust fly in all directions with no atmosphere to slow them down. Picture yourself working at a futuristic moon base stepping outside to watch the Earthrise:“For example, we found an 18-meter (59-foot) impact crater that formed on March 17, 2013, and it produced over 250 secondary impacts, some of which were at least 30 kilometers (18.6 miles) away,” Speyerer said. “Future lunar bases and surface assets will have to be designed to withstand up to 500 meter per second (1,120 mph) impacts of small particles.“PhysOrg says the meteoritic rain is so heavy, it gives the moon a facelift every 81,000 years, overturning the top two centimeters of lunar dust. Some impactors were big. The astronomers found 33% more craters than expected with diameters at least ten meters.None of the articles asks the obvious question: what does this mean over the assumed lifetime of the moon? If the moon really formed 4.5 billion years ago, as secular planetary scientists believe, that would be 5,555 facelifts. (It should be noted that the 81,000-year estimate uses models that assume the billions-of-years age of the moon. All they can really observe is the current impact rate. The new observations, however, imply a faster production rate than the favored model assumes.)Another consequence of the study affects all the planets and moons of the solar system. Does the impact rate need to be revised upward everywhere else? Are primary and secondary craters occurring much more frequently than expected at Mars and the moons of Saturn, or at Pluto? Meteor flux could vary at different radii from the sun. It’s also a factor of gravitational pull. But without a reconnaissance orbiter at each planet or moon, it’s hard to be sure. New craters have been observed at Mars – again, at a higher rate than expected (2/13/14).Earth, with its higher gravity, attracts meteors at an even higher rate, but our atmosphere causes most of them to burn up high in the sky. Meteors are commonly observed by skywatchers. The occasional meteor shower increases the rate when Earth passes through the dust stream of a comet. The rare meteorites (meteors that reach Earth’s surface) are prized by collectors. Some of them come from Mars and other planets, when glancing blows send rocks our way (3/25/08).The research paper in Nature by Speyerer et al. contains before-and-after photos of impact sites.The trend in crater-count dating has been up and down: up in the number of impact events and secondaries, down in the method’s credibility. It’s clear that these results were surprising. Despite all those thousands of craters, the moon doesn’t have to be billions of years old.This paper should stimulate creationists to revisit the moon dust problem. In the Apollo era, all the secular astronomers were astonished at the thinness of the lunar regolith. The Surveyor landers proved that the dust was not meters thick with fine dust as some had predicted. Apollo astronauts found the dust to be so shallow, they could scratch the bedrock with their boots. It seemed that fine dust had not been accumulating for billions of years. When subsequent estimates of dust influx were substantially reduced, many creationists abandoned the moon-dust argument for a young moon.Perhaps that was premature. This paper shows that impacts send up jets of dust that settle back under ballistic trajectories. If the top two centimeters can be completely “gardened” in just 81,000 years, it seems highly implausible to believe this has happened over 5,000 times. Some creation physicist ought to read the new paper and revisit the implications for age.
22 April 2016She was in such awe that her book was doing well on the movie circuit, she hoped producers would turn more to local novels for their next projects, said Cynthia Jele, author of Happiness is a Four-Letter Word.In celebration of World Book and Copyright Day, which is observed on 23 April, the South African novelist believes any day that honours books and reading should get the thumbs up. “Books are sources of knowledge and inspiration. I wrote Happiness is a Four-Letter Word as a result of reading.“There is a famous quote by a British writer, Neil Gaiman, that sums up my feelings for books. It goes: ‘A book is a dream that you hold in your hands.’”AccoladesJele won first and fourth prizes in the 2008 BTA/Anglo-Platinum Short Story Competition. Three years later, her debut novel, Happiness is a Four-Letter Word, won Best First Book (Africa region) in the Commonwealth Writers’ Prize 2011, as well as the 2011 M-Net Literary Award in the film category. The novel, which celebrates love and female friendships, was also shortlisted for the 2011 Booksellers Choice Award.Earlier in her writing career, in 2006, Jele self-published a guide, So You Wanna Be an Au Pair in the USA: What Your Agency Will Never Tell. It covered the experiences she and others had of au pairing in the United States.Jele was also one of the first Faces of Fundza and her short stories, such as The Big Crush, are published on the Fundza mobi site. Fundza Literacy Trust is a South African non-profit organisation dedicated to improving literacy among teens and young adults, which does through using technology accessible to its target market, such as smartphones.The beginning“I once attended a reading session given by an American author, where towards the end of her talk she took the audience through a short writing exercise: she read out a line from a new short story she was working on and asked the audience to complete the first two paragraphs,” Jele told Fundza about how her writing journey started.“I remember the thrill of trying to put something on a piece of paper. When I got home, I pulled out my computer and wrote a short story. I haven’t stopped since.” That was about 10 years ago.It took her three years to write her debut novel, which she completed in 2009.“I was tired of books that I battled to identify with because most of them were set in different countries with different nationalities,” she explained to Bona magazine about her motivation.“Based on that, I decided to write a book that people could identify with. I was nervous because it was my first. I had no literature qualifications; all I knew was that I wanted to write it. I started writing about the women I know and mirrored the average modern day woman’s life.”And it has resonated with many women:Nandi from Happiness Is A Four Letter Word reminded me of myself so much, so weird.The love of Merlot & Avocado and how she’s so indecisive.— Nasiphi Q. Mvunyiswa (@NasiphiQM) April 17, 2016Happiness Is a Four-letter Word is going international, starting with a theatrical release in Nigeria https://t.co/8I2E44TO11— City Press Online (@City_Press) April 12, 2016Watched Happiness Is A Four Letter Word for the first time today and I actually quite enjoyed it. Good quality South African movie— Innocentia Shole (@InnieShole) April 17, 2016Writing was a solitary exercise, Jele said, that required a lot of discipline and commitment. “I also have a full-time job as a director at Enterpriseroom, an enterprise and supplier development consultancy. It competes with my writing time. It’s easy not to write, except writing is the most fulfilling experience for me.“I love how for that minute, hour, hours, I can get lost in my characters’ world. It’s like living a double life.”World Book and Copyright DayTo Irina Bokova, the director-general of Unesco, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, a book is a link between the past and the future. “It is a bridge between generations and across cultures. It is a force for creating and sharing wisdom and knowledge,” she said.According to the United Nations, 23 April is a symbolic date for world literature. “It is on this date in 1616 that Cervantes, Shakespeare and Inca Garcilaso de la Vega all died. It is also the date of birth or death of other prominent authors, such as Maurice Druon, Haldor K Laxness, Vladimir Nabokov, Josep Pla and Manuel Mejia Vallejo,” says the world organisation.World Book and Copyright Day is held to pay worldwide tribute to books and authors. It is also to encourage everyone to discover the pleasure of reading. read more
If you’re a skydiver, you know all about adrenaline addiction and the pull of gravity – so don’t miss out on the chance of a quick jump while you’re on holiday (or a business trip) in South Africa.South Africa boasts numerous long established and reputable skydiving clubs close to Pretoria, Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban, Bloemfontein, on the Wine Route, along the scenic Garden Route, and in some of the smaller university towns, such as Grahamstown. (Image: Cape Town Tandem Paragliding)With it’s excellent climate, largely clear skies and spectacular scenery, skydiving is a very popular sport practiced throughout the year, right across South Africa.ParaglidingIf you’re into paragliding or hang gliding, the sky’s the limit in South Africa!Parachuting history in South Africa started with the formation of the historic Pietermaritzburg Parachute Club back in 1954 – making it one of the oldest parachuting clubs in the world, from the era when skydiving as recreational and competitive sport activity began.Today South Africa boasts numerous long established and reputable skydiving clubs close to Pretoria, Johannesburg, Cape Town, Durban, Bloemfontein, on the Wine Route, along the scenic Garden Route, and in some of the smaller university towns, such as Grahamstown.If you’re a skydiver already then you know all about adrenaline and the pull of gravity – so don’t miss out on the chance to jump at the numerous drop zones scattered throughout South Africa!Tandem introductory skydiveIf you have never skydived before, a tandem introductory skydive will see you strapped to an experienced instructor for the ride of your life. It will give you a birds-eye view of some of South Africa’s fantastic scenery, will definitely get your adrenalin pumping, and will certainly give you an experience to remember forever.You might also like to consider enrolling in the internationally recognised Accelerated FreeFall Program (AFF) while in South Africa. Over the 10-jump programme you learn to skydive on your own. Once graduated, you will be signed off to jump at any registered drop zone, anywhere in the world.AffordableWith the favourable exchange rate, excellent climate and spectacular scenery, South Africa is a great place to experience skydiving. You will find it cheaper than in most other countries, and it’s an excellent view from up there!Drop zones in South Africa operate within rigidly defined and enforced safety parameters set out in the Parachute Association of South Africa’s Manual of Procedures. Safety and training standards are on a par with, or better than, international standards.As they say on the drop zones “Blue Skies & Great SkyDives”.Travel and Planning InfoWhether you are an experienced sports skydiver, a first time jumper, or wanting to do beginner through to advanced skydiving training, SkyDiversity – http://www.skydiversity.co.za – provides up to date advice and information on skydiving and skydiving events, as well as facilitates enquiries and bookings for all drop zones in South Africa.Tandem Introductory skydiving packages range from R 1 750 for a basic tandem skydive, through to R 2 850 with all of the camera options.Accelerated FreeFall (AFF) Ground School, Training and Level 1 will cost you between R 2 000 and R 2 500. From there the AFF Levels get cheaper as you progress through the course. On average the 10 level, 10 jump programme will cost you between R 1 400 and R 1 700 per jump.Sports skydiving slot rates for experienced skydivers with their own equipment range from R 300 to R 400 per jump, depending on which drop zone you are jumping at.What to wearWear athletic/comfortable casual clothing suited to the weather conditions of the day.Bring a pair of pants and a long sleeve top (not a hoodie) to maybe wear for your actual jumps.You will need nice fitting, comfortable lace-up footwear/running shoes.Big boots with hooks, high heels and loose open slops are not acceptable.If you have long hair bring a couple of decent hair ties.If you wear contact lenses or prescription glasses, let your tandem instructor know and you will be provided with goggles that will protect your eyes/contact lenses, and /or will fit over your prescription glasses.Most drop zones will give you a jump suit to wear over your clothing.What to packAll skydiving equipment will be provided by the drop zone.Just bring your sense of adventure along.Parachute Association of South Africa (Pasa)The Parachute Association of South Africa is the governing body for skydiving in South Africa – www.para.co.zaPasa Registered Drop ZonesGauteng (Johannesburg/Pretoria and surrounds)SkyDive Rustenburg – www.skydiverustenburg.co.zaSkyDive Parys – www.skydiveparys.co.zaPretoria SkyDiving Club (Wonderboom) – www.skydivepretoria.co.zaJohannesburg Skydiving Club (Carltonville) – www.jsc.co.zaCape TownSkydive Cape Town – www.skydivecapetown.za.netSkydive Robertson (start of the Wine Route) – www.skydive.co.zaMother City SkyDiving – http://www.mothercityskydiving.co.za/Garden RouteSkydive Knysna – www.skydiveknysna.comSkydive Mossel Bay – www.skydivemosselbay.comSkydive Plettenberg Bay – www.skydiveplett.comSkydive Oudtshoorn – www.skydiveoudtshoorn.co.zaEastern ProvinceEP Skydivers (Grahamstown) – www.epskydivers.co.zaKwaZulu-NatalDurban Skydive Centre (Eston) – www.skydivedurban.co.zaSkydive Ballito – www.skydivedurban.co.zaFree StateSkydive Central (Tempe – Bloemfontein) – www.skydivecentral.co.zaMpumalangaWitbank Skydiving Club – www.dropzone.co.zaWould you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? 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23 May 2014 With only one more training session to go on Friday, the Junior Springboks are raring to have a go at the 2014 Junior World Championships (JWC) starting in Auckland, New Zealand on 2 June. Junior Bok coach, Dawie Theron, addressed a media briefing in Stellenbosch on Thursday and said his charges are looking forward to leaving for New Zealand on Monday. Before that, they will have their capping ceremony in Cape Town on Saturday.Impressive record South Africa has an impressive record in the IRB Junior World Championship. Last year, in France, they finished third, losing only one game by a single point to Wales, and beating New Zealand 41-34 to finish in third place. In 2012, they won the title in Cape Town, defeating the Kiwis 22-16 in the title-decider. Theron said it is already evident that the squad is reaping the rewards of an adjusted training schedule, which included three tests against Argentina, with the Junior Boks winning the series 3-0. Compared to previous years, the squad has spent a lot more time together before their departure for the JWC.‘Very positive’ “It was very positive for us, and it was good that it was closer to the tournament. Our preparation will mean more for us because we played these games just before the tournament. And we also had a very hard contact session against Hamiltons earlier in the week, and that also went well,” Theron said in a statement. The coach said he is not too concerned that two of his players, Handre Pollard (Vodacom Bulls) and Thomas du Toit (Cell C Sharks), have not been able to participate fully at the training camp because of Vodacom Super Rugby commitments. Pollard will captain the team in New Zealand.‘He knows our system well’ “Handre is in his third year with us and he knows our system very well. All his experience over the last three years will make it easier for him to slot in. He knows the coaches and he knows the culture of the team,” Theron explained. He reiterated his team will face a daunting challenge in New Zealand, where they are grouped in the same pool as the Kiwis, Scotland and Samoa. ‘A very difficult group’ “It is a very difficult group and is a big challenge for us, so we will take it one game at a time. For now, we don’t want to look too far ahead. We see Scotland as our most important match, so that we can get going and lay the foundation. That’s why it’s so important to get it right from the start, but it’s also a great opportunity,” he added. The Junior Springbok coach also said New Zealand will be under huge pressure in their own country. “I think the pressure is massive on New Zealand. It will be a major challenge for them.” Theron described his squad as big and physical, but added that there is a good balance of skillful players as well. SAinfo reporter read more
Read Next Reduced to a role of interested observer, Love has watched as coach Tyronn Lue force feeds numerous offensive sets and defensive principles to players who began the season in different systems. The new-look Cavs have had some great moments, and more than a few tough ones.Following Thursday’s home loss to Philadelphia, Lue said he planned to simplify things for his new players. On Friday, the Cavs watched film and afterward Lue said he’s still confident his club will mesh.“I feel good about this team,” Lue said. “No doubt about it. We got a lot of young talent. We got a lot of good pieces. We’re just trying to figure it out, put it together. We’ve only played seven games right now and those guys are still trying to figure it out.”There will be another adjustment when Love returns, but it won’t be as if Lue has to re-teach him how to play with LeBron James, J.R. Smith and Tristan Thompson, the four players remaining from Cleveland’s 2016 NBA title team.The Cavs may not be the same, but Love believes they remain strong.ADVERTISEMENT LOOK: Iya Villania meets ‘Jumanji: The Next Level’ cast in Mexico “We have guys who have been here and know exactly what to expect moving forward,” said Love, who is averaging 17.9 points, 9.4 rebounds and shooting 40 percent on 3-pointers. “So it’s on us to bring everybody along and have veteran guys push maybe the younger guys or the new guys through the process. …“The coaching staff has remained the same so we know what they want out of us. Having some new blood and some new faces in some ways can be a good thing because they’re going to be very hungry and want to get on that quick learning curve to make it so we have a big run.” Mental battle key to Djokovic comeback, says former coach Typhoon ‘Tisoy’ threatens Games Pussycat Dolls set for reunion tour after 10-year hiatus MOST READ Brace for potentially devastating typhoon approaching PH – NDRRMC Google honors food scientist, banana ketchup inventor and war hero Maria Orosa Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. View comments LATEST STORIES Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university PLAY LIST 01:29Police teams find crossbows, bows in HK university01:35Panelo suggests discounted SEA Games tickets for students02:49Robredo: True leaders perform well despite having ‘uninspiring’ boss02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City John Lloyd Cruz a dashing guest at Vhong Navarro’s wedding Typhoon Kammuri accelerates, gains strength en route to PH FILE – In this Feb. 23, 2018, file photo, Cleveland Cavaliers forward Kevin Love greets fans before an NBA basketball game against the Memphis Grizzlies, in Memphis, Tenn. The All-Star forward, who has been sidelined since late January with a broken left hand, said Friday, March 2, 2018, that he’s progressing well and it’s possible he could return sooner than expected. Love has been out since Jan. 29 and was expected to miss two months.(AP Photo/Brandon Dill, File)INDEPENDENCE, Ohio — As the Cavaliers experience growing pains with four new players, relief might be ahead: Kevin Love.The All-Star forward, sidelined since Jan. 29 with a broken left hand, said Friday he could return sooner than expected. The initial timetable was for him to be out two months.ADVERTISEMENT Families in US enclave in north Mexico hold sad Thanksgiving “If I can get back before eight weeks, great,” he said. “So I’m hoping that that is the case.”Love’s recovery has picked up speed in recent days. He’s now able to catch the ball with a padded glove to protect his left hand, and the progress is such that there’s less risk for re-injury.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSWATCH: Drones light up sky in final leg of SEA Games torch runSPORTSLillard, Anthony lead Blazers over ThunderSPORTSMalditas save PH from shutout“One of the things I can do now is kind of catch the ball, guide it and shoot it within 12-15 feet so that feels good to do something other than run on the treadmill or run on the bike so it’s nice,” he said.The Cavaliers have been transformed since the last time Love played, with their roster overhauled by three trades before the deadline. Cleveland is just 3-4 since adding guards George Hill, Jordan Clarkson and forwards Rodney Hood and Larry Nance Jr. But Love has been encouraged by the infusion of talent and is excited about the team’s prospects once he returns. read more
The Tiger Spikers tied La Salle at the fifth spot with a 4-6 record while the Fighting Maroons bowed out of the race with a 1-9 card.Joshua Umandal and Jaron Requinton had 20 points apiece for UST while Manuel Medina and Jayvee Sumagaysay had 15 and 13 points, respectively.Sports Related Videospowered by AdSparcRead Next SEA Games hosting troubles anger Duterte Duterte wants probe of SEA Games mess Spurs claim 21st straight home win over Hawks Cayetano: Senate, Drilon to be blamed for SEA Games mess View comments Don’t miss out on the latest news and information. Philippine Arena Interchange inaugurated LATEST STORIES MANILA, Philippines—Adamson University took a share of the third spot after stunning Far Eastern University, 25-14, 22-25, 25-23, 16-25, 17-15, in the UAAP Season 81 men’s volleyball tournament Wednesday at Filoil Flying V Center.ADVERTISEMENT DA eyes importing ‘galunggong’ anew PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games PLAY LIST 02:42PH underwater hockey team aims to make waves in SEA Games01:44Philippines marks anniversary of massacre with calls for justice01:19Fire erupts in Barangay Tatalon in Quezon City01:07Trump talks impeachment while meeting NCAA athletes02:49World-class track facilities installed at NCC for SEA Games02:11Trump awards medals to Jon Voight, Alison Krauss Hontiveros presses for security audit of national power grid Panelo: Duterte ‘angry’ with SEA Games hosting hassles MOST READ The Soaring Falcons tied Ateneo with 6-4 records while the second-seeded Tamaraws dropped their second straight game, the third in four games, to slip to an 8-2 card.George Labang had a game-high 24 points for Adamson while Leo Miranda and Paolo Pablico had 15 and 14 points, respectively.FEATURED STORIESSPORTSPrivate companies step in to help SEA Games hostingSPORTSPalace wants Cayetano’s PHISGOC Foundation probed over corruption chargesSPORTSSingapore latest to raise issue on SEA Games food, logisticsRichard Solis had 18 points to lead FEU.In the other game, University of Santo Tomas kept its pace for a Final Four spot and in the process eliminated University of the Philippines, 25-17, 18-25, 25-20, 25-15. Private companies step in to help SEA Games hosting read more